Authors: Dan Palmer and Michael B. Thomas (Data Manager)
Publication: How to cite: Palmer, D. and M.B. Thomas. (year). Updated Checklist of the Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies. Accessed yyyy-mm-dd.
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Locality: Hawaiian Islands

Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies is the first comprehensive survey of Hawaii's ferns to be published in more than 100 years. The book covers endemic, indigenous, and naturalized ferns and fern allies (including rare and endangered taxa), providing dichotomous keys, basionyms and synonyms, technical descriptions and distributions, a glossary, and statistical information. The author addresses unresolved taxonomic problems and offers suggestions for future research. He includes information from Hawaiian folklore and mythology, describes uses of ferns by native Hawaiians, and updates Hawaiian common names. More than 100 line drawings illustrate all 222 species, varieties, and forms, and some hybrids. The volume is based on extensive fieldwork, studies of herbarium collections worldwide, and consultations with pteridologists, local ecologists, and collectors. It provides the much-needed scientific basis for a new, worldwide appreciation of Hawaiian ferns and fern allies and for major efforts to protect and conserve them. This well-researched and highly readable book will be enthusiastically received by amateur and professional naturalists, fern enthusiasts, and professional botanists.

Reference: Palmer, Daniel D. 2003. Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI.

Notes: Updated checklist based on Ferns and Fern Allies (Palmer, 2003)

Common Names
Common Names
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Notes & Vouchers
Taxon Authors
Show Taxa Alphabetically
Families: 69
Genera: 72
Species: 198 (species rank)
Total Taxa: 222 (including subsp. and var.)
low mossy branches in wet forests/bogs, epiphyte, locally common, K/O
Wet forest epiphytes, usually epiphytic at 350-1,750 m, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Near streams/ valleys of wet forests, epiphyte seldom found on ohia, 300-550 m, locally common, O
Adenophorus periens L.E.Bishop - English: pendant kihi fern
Wet forest epiphyte (mostly on Ohia), 700-1300 m, endangered species, K/Mo/H
Adenophorus pinnatifidus Gaudich. - English: graceful kihifern
Mesic to wet forest Epiphytic/epipetric, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Mesic to wet forest Epiphytic/epipetric, by far most common variety, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet forests, along shaded streambeds, 240-1680 m, epiphyte, occasional to abundant, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Wet-mesic to rainforest, epiphyte, 300-1300 m on Ohia mostly, most common species in genus, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Adenophorus tripinnatifidus Gaudich. - English: royal kihifern
very wet rainforests Epigeous grows in moss, 600-1,950 m, occasional to locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Adiantum capillus-veneris L. - English: venus hairfern
Shady rock banks and sea caves, 0-430 m, occasionally found, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/N
Dry steep rock walls and talus slopes, Occasionally found, M/L
Adiantum hispidulum Sw. - English: rough maidenhair
Dry to wet forests, 90-1,250 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/N/Ka
Adiantum raddianum C.Presl - English: delta maidenhair
on moist consolidated cinder and basalt along trails and streams < 4,400 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Adiantum tenerum Sw. - English: fan maidenhair
Shore line and rock walls, only found in Hana and Makiki, O/M
Amauropelta globulifera (Brack.) Holttum - En: Kamapua'a's fern; Hawaiian: palapalai a Kamapua 'a
near streams and waterfalls 100-2,200 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
huge terrestrial , found on shaded moist valleys and ridges, 100-650 m, spreading, O/L/M/H
Arachniodes insularis W.H.Wagner - English: Santa Cruz Island hollyfern
sides of streams in wet forests, 765-2,015 m, occasionally locally common, K/O/Mo/H/M
Asplenium acuminatum Hook. & Arn. - English: tapertip spleenwort
mesic to wet forests, 275-2,500 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. - English: black spleenwort
dry lava and cinders, open woods and shrbland, 350-4,000 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm.f.) Bech. - English: Egyptian spleenwort
mesic to wet forests, shrubland, 305-1,950 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium contiguum Kaulf. - English: forest spleenwort
mesic to wet forests, occasionally epiphytic, common and widespread, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium contiguum var. contiguum - English: forest spleenwort
mesic to wet forests, occasionally epiphytic, common and widespread, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium contiguum var. hirtulum C.Chr. - English: forest spleenwort
epiphytic, occasionally terrestrial, restricted habitats in rain forests, 1120 and 1550 m, infrequent but locally common, K/M
mesic to wet mossy forests, near streams, 200-1,830 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium haleakalense W.H.Wagner - English: Haleakala spleenwort
mossy trees in rain forests, epiphyte, 1700-2100 m, uncommon and localized, M
Asplenium hobdyi W.H.Wagner - English: Hobdy's spleenwort
very wet rainforests, near bases of waterfals, uncommon, K/Mo/M/H
Asplenium horridum Kaulf. - English: lacy spleenwort
wet-mesic, to dry forests and mesic shrubland, 200-1000 m, somewhat common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
same habitats as var. horridum, scattered distribution, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
same as A. horridum, more common of the two varieties, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium insiticium Brack. - English: royal spleenwort
mesic to wet forests, 365-1200 m, occasionally found, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium kaulfussii Schltdl. - English: queen spleenwort, Kaulfuss' spleenwort
mesic to wet, shady forests, 150-1200 m, locally common, K/O/Mo/H/M
Asplenium lobulatum Mett. - English: piipiilau manamana
mesic to wet forests 240-1525 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium macraei Hook. & Grev. - English: MaCrae's spleenwort
mesic to wet forests 420-1830 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium monanthes L. - English: single-sorus spleenwort
wet shady slopes and stream banks, epiphyte, 1000-2030 m, uncommon, M/H
Asplenium nidus L. - English: Hawai'i birdnest fern
mesic to dry forest, 40-610 m, relatively common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium normale D.Don - English: rainforest spleenwort
mesic to dry forests, occasionally in wet 375-1680 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
dark, mpoist, areas in rock crevices, or at the mouths of in remote corners of lava tubes that receive very little light, 1650-2200 m, federally listed endangered, M/H
Asplenium polyodon G.Forst. - English: sickle speenwort
mesic to wet forests, 600-2000 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium schizophyllum C.Chr. - English: fringed spleenwort
mossy ground in wet forests, 750-1700 m, uncommon in K, abundant in H, K/H
Asplenium sphenotomum Hillebr. - English: royal spleenwort
mesic to wer forests, 1140-1970 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Asplenium trichomanes L. - English: maidenhair spleenwort
full sunlight in open areas on lava fields, 1200-2700 m, locally common, M/H
Asplenium unilaterale Lam. - English: pamohe
wet mossy forests near streams, 200-1830 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet forests, 500-2320 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Azolla filiculoides Lam. - English: Pacific azolla, Carolina mosquitofern
low evelvation taro patches, irrigation ditches and ponds, widespread, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Blechnum appendiculatum Willd. - English: palm fern
clones forming large colonies in closed-canopy mesic forests, especially on rock or rocky substrates, 30-1560 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
wet banks, wet mossy forests, along stream banks, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
wet or aquatic habitats- rice/taro fields, ponds/streams, swamps, ditches low evelvation, formerly common, limited due to weed control/reduc, O/K
most common in dry exposed areas, 10-700 m, occuring in diverse habitats, K/O/M/H
Christella boydiae (D.C. Eaton) Holttum - English: Boyd's maiden fern
rocks and ledges in inundated stream margins, 550 m in Ko'olau range, 1315-1350 m in Kipahulu, rare, O/M/H
Christella cyatheoides (Kaulf.) Holttum - English: lacy maiden fern
forest floors to steep, shaded slopes, near stream banks, 120-1400 m, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Diverse habitats, very common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Christella parasitica (L.) Lév. - English: parasitic maiden fern
disturbed areas and along trails, 5-1160 m, very common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
sheer, dripping, wet walls in the spray zone of waterfalls at the backs of valleys, 560-950 m, Hanalei and Waimea, restricted, K
Cibotium chamissoi Kaulf. - English: Chamisso's manfern
mesic to wet forests, 150-1200 m, less common above 800 m, O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet forests, 300-1700 m, can be as low as 100 m, abundant, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Cibotium menziesii Hook. - English: hapu'u li
wet to mesic forests, 250-1400 m, locally abundant in wet , occasinally in mesic, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Cibotium nealiae O.Deg. - English: Neal's manfern
mesic to wet forests, 135-1300 m, locally abundant, K
mesic to wet forests, 610-2070 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Ctenitis latifrons (Brack.) Copel. - English: delicate lacefern, Honolulu lacefern
mesic to wet forests, dark and damp valleys, understory of ohia forests, 400-1500 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
small clusters in mesic forest, 180-1030 m, endangered species, possibly extinct on K, K/O/L/Mo/M
Cyclosorus boydiae (D.C.Eaton) W.H.Wagner - English: Boyd's maiden fern
rocks and ledges in inundated stream margins, 550 m in Ko'olau rang, 1315-1350 m in Kipahulu, rare, O/M/H
Cyclosorus cyatheoides (Kaulf.) Farw. - English: lacy maiden fern
forest floors to steep, shaded slopes, near stream banks, 120-1400 m, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Cyclosorus dentatus (Forssk.) Ching - English: mountain woodfern
Diverse habitats, very common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd.) H.Itô - English: Neke Fern, Willdenow's maiden fern
wet swampy habitats, extensively distributed, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/Ka/Ni
Cyclosorus parasiticus (L.) Farw. - English: parasitic maiden fern
disturbed areas and along trails, 5-1160 m, very common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Cyrtomium caryotideum (Wall.) C.Presl - English: dwarf netvein hollyfern
dry to mesic forests to montane wet forests and mesic shrubland, 300-2100 m, found only in summer, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Cyrtomium falcatum (L.f.) C.Presl - English: Japanese netvein hollyfern
dry, mesic, to wet forest floors and valleys, 0-1525 m, preferes windward sea cliffs, escaped, naturalized, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Cystopteris douglasii Hook. - English: Douglas' bladderfern
mesic forests and cave mouths, 1500-3000 m. On wet, protected ledges and within lava tube entracnes in the higher elevation subalpine and alpine zones, rare, M/H
sheer, dripping, wet walls in the spray zone of waterfalls at the backs of valleys, 560-950 m, Hanalei and Waimea, restricted, K
Deparia fenzliana (Luerss.) M. Kato - English: Fenzl's false spleenwort
mesic forests, 380-1010 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Deparia kaalaana (Copel.) M. Kato - English: serpent fern
on rocky banks of streams and in wet forests, rare and restricted, K/M/H
Deparia marginalis (Hillebr.) M. Kato - English: marginal false spleenwort
wet forest 120-1280 m, locally common, K/Mo/L/M/H
Deparia petersenii (Kunze) M. Kato - English: Japanese false spleenwort
along trails, stream sides, disturbed forest floors 170-1325 m, common and widely distributed aggressive weed, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Deparia prolifera (Kaulf.) Hook. & Grev. - English: prolific false spleenwort
wet forests, 215-1280 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw. - English: uluhe, Old World forkedfern
mesic to wet forests, covering steep slopes, 0-2000 m, very common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
higher elevation except on Hawaii where it is found as low as 50 m, found, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
large mats, More common than D. lineraris, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Diellia erecta Brack. - English: erect island spleenwort, Asplenium-leaved diellia
cinder rocks or loamy soil, dry to mesic forests, 500-1700 m, very rare federally endangered, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
occuring on cinder rocks or loamy soil in dry to mesic forests, 500-1700 m, very rare federally listed endangered, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Diellia erecta f. pumila (Brack.) W.H. Wagner - English: erect island spleenwort, Asplenium-leaved diellia
found on boulders and cliffs, recorded, K/O/L/M/H
Diellia falcata Brack. - English: sickle island spleenwort
loamy soil, mesic forests, 400-1000 m, very rare federally endangered, O
Diellia leucostegioides (Baker) W.H. Wagner - English: necklace island spleenwort
when it was collected three times in the area of the present Makawao Forest Reserve, presumably extinct, last collected 1879, M
Diellia mannii (D.C. Eaton) W.J. Rob. - English: Mann's island spleenwort
collected in gulches in mesic forests, 500-1,000 m, preseumably extinct, K
Diellia pallida W.H. Wagner - English: pale island spleenwort
known from only a few plants in mesic forests, 600-800 m, extremely rare species, K
Diellia unisora W.H. Wagner - English: singlesorus island spleenwort
mesic forests, steep ridge sides, 700 m, very rare federally endangered, O
mesic to wet forests along stream banks, 150-1700 m, frequent, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. - English: vegetable fern
shady valleys, wet, swampy soils, along streams low elevation, usually found in large untidy straggly stands, K/O/L/H/M
Diplazium molokaiense W.J. Rob. - English: Molokai twinsorus fern
mesic to wet forests, 770-1690 m, federally endangered, perviously K/O/L/Mo/H/M but now only on M
Diplazium sandwichianum (C. Presl) Diels - English: Hawai'i twinsorus fern
mesic to wet forests, moist forest understory, 105-1850 m, common,dominant ground cover, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
usually in wet forests, often on open ridgesor on steep, wet banks and streamsides, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Doodia kunthiana Gaudich. - English: Kunth's hacksaw fern
seasonally mesic to semidry, loamy forest floors and slope, 90-1220 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Doodia lyonii O.Deg. - English: Lyon's hacksaw fern
restricted habitat under dark, moist, overhanging banks or vegetation, near streambeds, 490-880 m, seldom seen but locally common, K/O/M/H
Doryopteris angelica K.R.Wood & W.H.Wagner - English: Kauai digit fern
scattered populations on steep slopes in mesic forests, 800-980 m, very rare and localized fern, K
Doryopteris decipiens (Hook.) J.Sm. - English: triangleleaf lipfern
dry shrublands, grasslands, and forests, often, growing on exposed basalt, 30-915 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/Ni/Ka/Leh
Doryopteris decora Brack. - English: lance fern
dry shrublands, grasslands, and forest areas, 120-700 m, often growing out of exposed rock, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/Ka
Diamond head crater on both inner and outer dry slopes, 100-120 m, found only on Diamond Head crater, O
Dryopteris crinalis (Hook. & Arn.) C. Chr. - English: serpent woodfern
wet forests, usually in gulches and along streams, 300-1900 m, common, very rare on O'ahu, absent from large part, O/H
Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus (W.H.Wagner & Flynn) D.D.Palmer - English: Palapalai aumakua, Kauaikinana woodfern
wet mossy walls, near streams in damp, dark valleys, 1060-1525 m near pihea trail Koke'e, very rare and restricted, K
dry to wet forests, 500-2100 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
dry to wet forests, 500-2100 m, endemic, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
920-1200 m in Makawao and Ko'olau forest reserve, found only in restricted area, M
mesic to wet forests, usually higher elevations, 460-2200 m, common to abundant, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
1100-1250 m in the Koke'e, Wai'ale'ale and Alaka'I areas of Kaua'i, common in its restricted distribution, K
growing on lower parts of shaded, mossy wet banks along a few streams 1200-2000 m near pihea trail, currently known only from one population, K
Mesic to wet forests, 450-2135 m, Found, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
1800-2200 m restricted to north slope of Haleakala, recently discovered, locally common, M
475-1310 m, mesic to wetwoods and at forests edges, frequent in scattered locations, O/M
Dryopteris glabra var. pusilla (Hillebr.) Fraser-Jenk. - English: little woodfern, Na Pali-Kona woodfern
deep shade on rocky, steep, very wet, mossy stream banks, 1200 m, found, K
Dryopteris hawaiiensis (Hillebr.) W.J.Rob. - English: Hawai'i woodfern
mesic to wet forests, 600-2000 m, infrequent, but sometimes abundant, K/O/Mo/H/M
Dryopteris mauiensis C.Chr. - English: Maui woodfern
wet forests, 945-1700+m, "Found", K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic forests, 80-1265 m, common in scattered sites, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Dryopteris subbipinnata W.H.Wagner & Hobdy - English: Ainahou Valley woodfern
wet and shady or open areas, 1650-2200 m, common in scattered spots, M/H
Dryopteris tetrapinnata W.H.Wagner & Hobdy - English: Waikamoi woodfern
understories of rain forests, 1400-1830 m, scattered, M
wet forests, 460-1750 m, locally common in isolated areas, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
wet forests, 450-1675 m, scarce, but numerous in scattered sites, K/O/Mo/H/M
wet forests, 450-1675 m, scarce but common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng.) Hyl. - English: alpine woodfern
mesic forests, and open areas, 850-2740 m, often found, K/O/Mo/H/M
Elaphoglossum aemulum (Kaulf.) Brack. - English: creeping tonguefern
moist forest, 300-1400 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/M
Elaphoglossum alatum Gaudich. - English: tall tonguefern
closed canopy mesic to wet forest, 450-1100 m, common, in large patches, O
Elaphoglossum crassicaule Copel. - English: tall tonguefern
closed canopy mesic to wet forests, 200-1400 m, common, K
forming large, closed set clusters in open mesic woods and open wet forests to dense rain forests, 300-1300 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Elaphoglossum fauriei Copel. - English: tall tonguefern
mesic to wet forests, 600-1350 m, O/Mo
mesic open woods to wet forests, 875-2075 m, common, K/O/Mo/H/M
Elaphoglossum parvisquameum Skottsb. - English: tall tonguefern
growing on moss in moist forests, 450-1800 m, common, Mo/M/L/H
Elaphoglossum pellucidum Gaudich. - English: jeweled tonguefern
moist forests, 450-1270 m, uncommon, K/O/Mo/H/M
Elaphoglossum wawrae (Luerss.) C. Chr. - English: island tonguefern
mesic to wet forests, 800-2100, common, K/O/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet on mossy rocks and in trees, low-elevation, 90-650 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mixed with and appearing like moss on a tree, in wet forests, 1280 m, rare, M/H
Grammitis baldwinii (Baker) Copel. - English: Baldwin's dwarf polypody
mesic to wet forests, 650-1150, epiphyte, locally common, K
Grammitis forbesiana W.H. Wagner - English: Forbes' dwarf polypody
wet forests, 500-1200, epiphyte, occasional to frequent, K/Mo/M
Grammitis hookeri (Brack.) Copel. - English: Hooker's dwarf polypody
mesic to wet forests, on low, mossy branches or rocks, 800-1750 m, common to widespread, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Grammitis tenella Kaulf. - English: kolokolo
mesic to wet forests, 365-1675 m, epiphytic mats, frequently, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet forests, 20-900 m, epiphyte/epipetric, no information provided, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Huperzia erosa Beitel & W.H.Wagner - English: toothed clubmoss
wet forests, 900-1815 m, isolated patches, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
wet, boggy, mossy, open areas, 800-1645 m, infrequent, but locally common, K/O/Mo/H/M
Huperzia filiformis (Sw.) Holub - English: stringleaf clubmoss, treelimb clubmoss
wet forests, 335-1920 m. On Oahu it is most common as epiphyte on Hibsicus arnottianus, locally common, O/L/Mo/H/M
Huperzia haleakalae (Brack.) Holub - English: Pacific clubmoss
Eke and high elevations near pu'u kukui, very rare, M
rough bark of trunks and tree branches, 1200-1600 m, federally endangered, K/M/H
Huperzia nutans (Brack.) Rothm. - English: nodding clubmoss, wawae`iole
Wahiawa and Ko'olau, Very rare, federally endangered, no fewer than 10 , K/O
Huperzia phyllantha (Hook. & Arn.) Holub - English: daggerleaf clubmoss
mesic to wet forests, epiphyte, 250-945 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
wet forests, 520-1220 m, K/O/L/Mo/H
on rough tree bark, 3 m or less aboveground or undersides of fallen logs in mesic to wet forests, 975-1160 m, very rare, M/H
wet, exposed banks in wet forests, 1220-1525 m, usually found, K/O/Mo/M
Hypolepis hawaiiensis Brownsey - English: dotted beadfern
wet forests, 600-1980 m, locally common but absent or rare in large areas o, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Hypolepis hawaiiensis var. hawaiiensis - English: dotted beadfern
wet forests, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
found on West Maui, recently collected at 1700 m on Pu'u Kukui, rare, M
growing in water with approximately 100,000 plants growing in 47 ponds having a total area of about 0.4 hectares on the summit of Eke, 1375 m and 50-100 plants growing on lava rocks forming the stream course on a small site on mauna kea, 850 m, very localized, M/H
cloudy rain forests and bogs, 900-1800 m, epiphyte, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
on trees and rocks in dryland, to mesic, to wet forests, 10-2100 m, epiphyte, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Lindsaea ensifolia Sw. - English: graceful necklace fern
mesic areas, 15-1220 m, extensive localized plots in scattered localities, K/M/O/H
wet mossy forests, 180-765 m, scattered, rather uncommon, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.Serm. - English: staghorn clubmoss
diverse habitats, but prefers wet areas, often growing in shrublands or among tall grasses on open, wet mountain ridges and in montane bogs, 15-2135 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Lycopodium venustulum Gaudich. - English: hairtip clubmoss
wet forests and shrublands in the wet mid-elevation zone and up to mesic dry subalpine zone, 825-2135 m, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Lycopodium venustulum var. venustulum - English: hairtip clubmoss
K/ O/ Mo/ L/ M/ H, common
dry, exposed sites, 1220-2440 m on Mauna loa, found, H
Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.) Sw. - English: Japanese climbing fern
climbing along roadside banks on shurbs and grasses, widely cultivated, H/O
open areas in mesic forests, 5-1200 m, occasional to locally common, K/O/H/M
mesic to wet forests, often on stream banks, 425-2070 m, infrequent, but occasionally locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Marsilea villosa Kaulf. - English: villous waterclover
low elevations, federally endangered species, O/M/Ni
colonies on trees and old logs in wet mossy forests, 270-1525 m, epiphyte/epipetric, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Microlepia speluncae (L.) T.Moore - English: limpleaf fern
mesic to wet forests, 480-1280 m, infrequent, occasionally common, K/O/H
dry to moderately wet habitats, 0-1770 m, mostly in dry, near sea level, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet forests, 425-1830 m, found
Microsorum spectrum (Kaulf.) Copel. - English: triploid fern
mesic to wet forests, ground cover with some parts ascending tree trunks, 180-1050 m, occasional, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
terrestrial, epiphytic or epipteric in mesic to wet forests, usually a ground cover with some parts ascending trees, 180-1050 m, occasional, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl - English: tuber ladder fern; Hawaiian: kupukupu
mesic to wet forests, 440-1525 m, sometimes epiphytic, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott - English: Boston swordfern
mesic to wet forests and in upper-elevation dryland forests, 25-1400 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/Ni
Nephrolepis falcata (Cav.) C. Chr. - English: fishtail swordfern
mesic to wet forests at low elevations, scattered, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl - English: Asian swordfern, scaly swordfern
first collected along Makapipi stream on East Maui, not an aggressive invader, M/K
Nephrolepis multiflora (Roxb.) Jarrett ex C.V. Morton - English: Asian swordfern, scaly swordfern
dry to mesic shrubland and forests, and along roads and trails, abundant, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet forests, 885-2180 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
epiphyte on tree branches or fallen logs, mesic and wet forests, 40-1000 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Ophioglossum nudicaule L.f. - English: least adder's-tongue
lawns and grassy fields, 30-1000 m, uncommon to rare, K/O/H
Ophioglossum petiolatum Hook. - English: stalked adder's-tongue
weed in greenhouses, flowerpots, and lawns in urban areas, 6-950 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Ophioglossum polyphyllum A.Braun - English: large adder's-tongue, tropical adderstongue
full sun in sand dunes, rocky lava, cobble, or grasslands near ocean shores, 2-160 m, locally and seasonally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/Ka
Pellaea ternifolia (Cav.) Link - English: cliffbrake
exposed, usually dry habitats, 600-3500 m, sometimes epiphytic, rare outside of drier areas, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Phlebodium aureum (L.) J.Sm. - English: golden polypody
mesic forests, sea level to 700 m, epiphytic, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
lower elevation forests, especially in disturbed areas, sea level-600 m, very common fern forming a ground cover, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Pityrogramma austro-americana Domin - English: leatherleaf goldback fern
exposed drier areas on bare banks, along trails and roadsides and in open disturbed fields, 45-1525 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/Ka/Ni
Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link - En: Naturalized Silver fern, silverback fern; English: Dixie silverback fern
exposed drier areas on bare banks, along trails and roadsides and in open disturbed fields, tending to favor more shade and moisture, sea level-1000 m, occasional, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Platycerium bifurcatum (Cav.) C.Chr. - English: elkhorn fern
tree trunks and branches usually near buildings in areas of high rainfall, localized, O/M/H
tree branches near cultivated plants in upper Nu'uanu valley, localized, O
Pneumatopteris hudsoniana (Brack.) Holttum - Hawaiian: laukahi; English: Hudson's air fern
mesic to wet forests, (20-)155-760 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet forests, often near streams, 750-2100 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Polypodium pellucidum Kaulf. - English: dotted polypody
diverse habitats in mesic to wet forests, 150-2135 m, "found", K/O/L/Mo/H/M
ittle known, seldom collected, has not been closely studied and may well be worthy of recognition as a species, probably rare, ?
known from mesic forests or grassy slopes, 800-1000 m, uncommon, K/O/M/Mo/L/H
in diverse habitats in mesic to wet forests, 150-2135 m, found, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
exposed areas usually on open barren lava flows and cinder, 550-2440 m., transtransitional between open lava and rain fores, Mo/M/H
Polystichum bonseyi W.H.Wagner & Hobdy - English: Bonsey's hollyfern
upper elevation mesic and wet forests, and subalpine mesic shrublands, 1400-2000 m, "found" common on east Maui, M/H
Polystichum haleakalense Brack. - English: island swordfern
mesic forests, 1710-3230 m, Found, M/H
Polystichum hillebrandii Carruth. - English: Hillebrand's hollyfern
mesic open areas or forests, also found in upper elevation rain forests, 1400-2060 m, locally common, M/H
wet forests, 200-1800 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Psilotum complanatum Sw. - English: flatfork fern
mesic to wet forests, 250-1100 m mostly epiphytic, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Psilotum nudum (L.) P.Beauv. - English: whisk fern; Hawaiian: moa
near sea level to 1200 m, present, K/O/L/Mo/H/M/Ka/Ni
mesic to wet shrublands, grasslands, and forests and in some dry subalpine areas, 300-2700 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Pteris cretica L. - English: Cretan brake
dry to mesic areas, 340-2450 m, locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Pteris excelsa Gaudich. - English: waimakanui
wet forests, 300-2075 m, common in scattered areas, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic forests, 370-1220 m, uncommon, but found scattered, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Pteris irregularis Kaulf. - English: zigzag brake
dry to mesic forests, 450-1920 m, occasionally common in localized sites, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Pteris lidgatei (Baker) Christ - English: Lidgate's brake
found on steep, shaded banks along streams and alongside waterfalls in wet forests, 530-1100 m, rare, O/M/Mo
Pteris vittata L. - unspecified: Chinese brake
urban areas, often on rock walls and dry cliffs, near sea level-1310 m, common, K/O/M/H
Sadleria cyatheoides Kaulf. - English: amaumau fern
exposed habitats, mesic and wet forests and shrublands, primary invader of new lava flows, (5-)75-2200 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
closed canopy wet forests or on open, rainy, windswept ridges, 25-2150 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Sadleria souleyetiana (Gaudich.) T.Moore - English: longleaf plume fern
closed or open canopied mesic to wet forests, 400-1550 m, occasional, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Sadleria squarrosa (Gaudich.) T.Moore - English: forest plume fern
steep, dark, damp banks often near streams, 400-2050 m, locally abundant in its restricted habitat, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
steep, dark, damp stream walls in wet forests, 400-1520 m, Uncommon in its restricted habitat, K
steep, wet dark walls of Kauaikanana and Mohihi streams and along the Wainihi pali below the Alaka'I plateau, 1100-1200 m, rare, K
Salvinia molesta D.S.Mitch. - English: aquarium watermoss
continuously wet sites, brackish water, drainage ditches, streams, and rivers, used ornamentally in aquariums and garden ponds, o, O
Sceptridium subbifoliatum (Brack.) W.H. Wagner - English: makou, island grapefern
probably on wet, mossy, forest floors, 600-1200 m, always rare and probably extinct, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Schizaea robusta Baker - English: robust curlygrass fern
open, windswept, moist banks and cuts and bog hummocks, usually in exposed areas, 500-1750 m, uncommon, but abundant in its restricted habitat, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Selaginella arbuscula (Kaulf.) Spring - English: dwarf spikemoss, Menzies' spikemoss, Hawai'i spikemoss; Hawaiian: leplepe a moa
shaded soil, rocks and cliffs in mesic to wet areas, 100-1200 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Selaginella deflexa Brack. - English: deflexed spikemoss
wet moss in open, mossy bogs, 1050-1500 m, infrequent, but locally common, K/O/Mo/H/M
Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A.Braun - English: Krauss' spikemoss
lawns, along edges of fields, trails, roadsides, mesic and wet areas, common, O/M/H
Selaginella stellata Spring - English: starry spikemoss
over cliffs and trail sides, growing in solid stands, H
naturalized in Akaka falls, found growing, likely to spread, H
tree trunks and logs in wet forests, 440-1320 m, epiphyte, colony-forming, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
trees and logs in wet forests, 400-1300 m, epiphyte, usually found on portions of tree trunks and logs , O/L/Mo/H/M
mesic to wet forests, grasslands, and shrublands along streamsides, 40-1310 m, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Sticherus owhyhensis (Hook.) Ching - English: Hawai'i umbrella fern
usually growing in tangled masses in wet forests, shrublands and open areas, often in association with Dicranopteris linearis, 900-1740 m, occasional and locally common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Tectaria gaudichaudii (Mett.) Maxon - English: Gaudichaud's halberd fern
moist, shady valley and gulches, 210-1250 m, "found" no other information, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Tectaria incisa Cav. - English: incised halberd fern
low elevations, first collected in 1985, K/O/H
Vandenboschia cyrtotheca (Hillebr.) Copel. - English: elegant bristle fern
dark, wet forests, 150-750 m terrestrial or climbing on rocks and tree trunks in gulch bottoms, common, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
Vandenboschia davallioides (Gaudich.) Copel. - English: kilau, eastern gamagrass
dark mesic and wet forests, on wet stream walls, rocks, and mossy tree trunks, 20-1100 m, uncommon and often overlooked, but locally abundan, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
dark mesic and wet forests, on wet stream walls, rocks, and mossy tree trunks, 20-1100 m, uncommon and often overlooked, but locally abundan, K/O/L/Mo/H/M
moist forests, 300-1200 m, terrestrial or low epiphyte, K

Development of the Consortium of Pacific Herbaria and several of the specimen databases have been supported by National Science Foundation Grants (BRC 1057303, ADBC 1304924 and ADBC1115116). Data Usage Policy. Copyright © 2015 University of Hawai‘i.

How to Cite: M.B. Thomas, J.F. Rock Herbarium, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 2015. Consortium of Pacific Herbaria Database (CPH). Available from: (date accessed)

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